This module focuses on the management of both historic and contemporary designed landscapes. It aims to further develop an understanding of the development and value of landscapes. The threats and challenges to their existence and integrity will be examined; this will include a critical review of the effectiveness of landscape protection measures and the relevant national and international organisations such as Historic England and its counterparts, UNESCO and ICOMOS. A range of case study sites will also be used to examine the influences on management strategies including government policies, economic pressures, enabling development, climate change, sustainable development, and public access. The module will examine the different management strategies and conservation philosophies used to ensure that landscapes endure in the long-term. This will cover the management planning processes involved from the initial research and data gathering stages, examination of alternative sustainable strategies that are resilient, flexible and adaptive to change, influences on decision making through to completion and subsequent implementation stages.