The use and administration of medicinal substances is closely scrutinized in animals. The effects of medicinal drugs and nutritional supplements may be used for a range of reasons and will often impact on animal functioning. This module is designed to develop in depth knowledge and understanding of the main principles of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, the effects and side effects of active substances used in veterinary medicines and nutraceuticals, licensing and legislation. Students will be encouraged to review, critically evaluate and utilize current research within the field of applied pharmacology.